This tool is an alternative to traditional fork and run execution for Cobalt Strike. The loader can be injected into any process, including the current Beacon. Long-running assemblies will continue to run and send output back to the Beacon, similar to the behavior of execute-assembly.
There are two components of inject-assembly:
BOF initializer: A small program responsible for injecting the assembly loader into a remote process with any arguments passed. It uses BeaconInjectProcess to perform the injection, meaning this behavior can be customized in a Malleable C2 profile or with process injection BOFs (as of version 4.5).
PIC assembly loader: The bulk of the project. The loader will initialize the .NET runtime, load the provided assembly, and execute the assembly. The loader will create a new AppDomain in the target process so that the loaded assembly can be totally unloaded when execution is complete.
Communication between the remote process and Beacon occurs through a named pipe. The Aggressor script generates a pipe name and then passes it to the BOF initializer.
- Patches Environment.Exit() to prevent the remote process from exiting.
- .NET assembly header stomping (MZ bytes, e_lfanew, DOS Header, Rich Text, PE Header).
- Random pipe name generation based on SourcePoint.
- No blocking of the Beacon, even if the assembly is loaded into the current process.
Download and load the inject-assembly.cna Aggressor script into Cobalt Strike. You can then execute assemblies using the following command:
inject-assembly pid assembly [args...]
Specify 0 as the PID to execute in the current Beacon process.
It is recommended to use another tool, like FindObjects-BOF, to locate a process that already loads the .NET runtime, but this is not a requirement for inject-assembly to function.
- Currently only supports x64 remote processes.
- There are several checks throughout the program to reduce the likelihood of crashing the remote process, but it could still happen.
- The default Cobalt Strike process injection may get you caught. Consider a custom injection BOF or UDRL IAT hook.
- Some assemblies rely on Environment.Exit() to finish executing. This will prevent the loader’s cleanup phase from occurring, but you can still disconnect the named pipe using
- Uncomment lines 3 or 4 of scmain.c to enable error or verbose modes, respectively. These are disabled by default to reduce the shellcode size.
This project would not have been possible without the following projects:
- CLR-related definitions and implementation – https://github.com/TheWover/donut
- Beacon job interface and project structure – https://github.com/SecIdiot/netntlm
Other features and inspiration were taken from the following resources: