Squarephish - An advanced phishing tool that uses a technique combining the OAuth Device code authentication flow and QR codes

Squarephish – An advanced phishing tool that uses a technique combining the OAuth Device code authentication flow and QR codes

SquarePhish is an advanced phishing tool that uses a technique combining the OAuth Device code authentication flow and QR codes.

See PhishInSuits for more details on using OAuth Device Code flow for phishing attacks.


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|_____/ __, |__,_|__,_|_| ___|_| |_| |_|_|___/_| |_|
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|> | ( v0.1.0
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usage: squish.py [-h] {email,server} ...

SquarePhish -- v0.1.0

optional arguments:
-h, --help show this help message and exit

modules:
{email,server}
email send a malicious QR Code ema il to a provided victim
server host a malicious server QR Codes generated via the 'email' module will
point to that will activate the malicious OAuth Device Code flow

Attack Steps

An attacker can use the email module of SquarePhish to send a malicious QR code email to a victim. The default pretext is that the victim is required to update their Microsoft MFA authentication to continue using mobile email. The current client ID in use is the Microsoft Authenticator App.

By sending a QR code first, the attacker can avoid prematurely starting the OAuth Device Code flow that lasts only 15 minutes.

The victim will then scan the QR code found in the email body with their mobile device. The QR code will direct the victim to the attacker controlled server (running the server module of SquarePhish), with a URL paramater set to their email address.

When the victim visits the malicious SquarePhish server, a background process is triggered that will start the OAuth Device Code authentication flow and email the victim a generated Device Code they are then required to enter into the legitimate Microsoft Device Code website (this will start the OAuth Device Code flow 15 minute timer).

The SquarePhish server will then continue to poll for authentication in the background.

[2022-04-08 14:31:51,962] [info] [[email protected]] Polling for user authentication...
[2022-04-08 14:31:57,185] [info] [[email protected]] Polling for user authentication...
[2022-04-08 14:32:02,372] [info] [[email protected]] Polling for user authentication...
[2022-04-08 14:32:07,516] [info] [[email protected]] Polling for user authentication...
[2022-04-08 14:32:12,847] [info] [[email protected]] Polling for user authentication...
[2022-04-08 14:32:17,993] [info] [[email protected]] Polling for user authentication...
[2022-04-08 14:32:23,169] [info] [[email protected]] Polling for user authentication...
[2022-04-08 14:32:28,492] [info] [[email protected]] Polling for user authentication...

The victim will then visit the Microsoft Device Code authentication site from either the link provided in the email or via a redirect from visiting the SquarePhish URL on their mobile device.

The victim will then enter the provided Device Code and will be prompted for consent.

After the victim authenticates and consents, an authentication token is saved locally and will provide the attacker access via the defined scope of the requesting application.

[2022-04-08 14:32:28,796] [info] [[email protected]] Token info saved to [email protected]

The current scope definition:

"scope": ".default offline_access profile openid"

Usage

!IMPORTANT: Before using either module, update the required information in the settings.config file noted with Required.

Email Module

Send the target victim a generated QR code that will trigger the OAuth Device Code flow.

usage: squish.py email [-h] [-c CONFIG] [--debug] [-e EMAIL]

optional arguments:
-h, --help show this help message and exit

-c CONFIG, --config CONFIG
squarephish config file [Default: settings.config]

--debug enable server debugging

-e EMAIL, --email EMAIL
victim email address to send initial QR code email to

Server Module

Host a server that a generated QR code will be pointed to and when requested will trigger the OAuth Device Code flow.

usage: squish.py server [-h] [-c CONFIG] [--debug]

optional arguments:
-h, --help show this help message and exit

-c CONFIG, --config CONFIG
squarephish config file [Default: settings.config]

--debug enable server debugging

Configuration

All of the applicable settings for execution can be found and modified via the settings.config file. There are several pieces of required information that do not have a default value that must be filled out by the user: SMTP_EMAIL, SMTP_PASSWORD, and SQUAREPHISH_SERVER (only when executing the email module). All configuration options have been documented within the settings file via in-line comments.

Note: The SQUAREPHISH_ values present in the ‘EMAIL’ section of the configuration should match the values set when running the SquarePhish server.

Custom Pretexts

Currently, the pre-defined pretexts can be found in the pretexts folder.

To write custom pretexts, use the existing template via the pretexts/iphone/ folder. An email template is required for both the initial QR code email as well as the follow up device code email.

Important: When writing a custom pretext, note the existence of %s in both pretext templates. This exists to allow SquarePhish to populate the correct data when generating emails (QR code data and/or device code value).

OPSEC

There are several HTTP response headers defined in the utils.py file. These headers are defined to override any existing Flask response header values and to provide a more ‘legitimate’ response from the server. These header values can be modified, removed and/or additional headers can be included for better OPSEC.

{
"vary": "Accept-Encoding",
"server": "Microsoft-IIS/10.0",
"tls_version": "tls1.3",
"content-type": "text/html; charset=utf-8",
"x-appversion": "1.0.8125.42964",
"x-frame-options": "SAMEORIGIN",
"x-ua-compatible": "IE=Edge;chrome=1",
"x-xss-protection": "1; mode=block",
"x-content-type-options": "nosniff",
"strict-transport-security": "max-age=31536000",
}

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